What Are Payroll Deductions in India?

In the complex financial and legal framework that makes up the world of work is Payroll Deductions. It stands as a crucial element that influences the financial well-being of workers and the regulatory compliance of companies. In this blog, we thoroughly clear various doubts

  • What payroll deductions in India are,
  • What the main categories of deductions are, and
  • Which software can help in calculating deductions in payroll?

Let’s shed light on these essential topics!

What Are Payroll Deductions?

Payroll Deductions are the amounts that companies subtract from an employee’s gross pay. Of course, these amounts are deductible before employees receive their take-home salary. These deductions may include various taxes, benefits, pension plan contributions, and other legally required withholdings. Additionally, private health insurance or savings plan contributions are optional deductions. The payroll thus becomes a detailed document that reflects both the income and the deductions.

What Elements Makeup a Payroll?

Payroll is a detailed report that reflects the payment of an employee by a company. Several essential elements make up Indian payroll requirements. Some elements are:

  1. Header: It contains basic information about the employee, such as the name, job title, seniority, and payroll period.
  2. Accruals: Accruals are the items that add to the person’s gross salary, such as base salary, HRA, overtime, and commissions.
  3. Deductions: Deductions, on the other hand, are the elements that are subtracted from the employee’s gross salary. They may include professional tax, TDS, PF, health insurance, and so on.

What are the Main Payroll Deductions in India?

As we have already explained, deductions are those items that are subtracted from the gross salary of an employee. It gives rise to the net salary, that is, the exact amount that they will receive at the end of the month for their work. Different types of deductions can appear on a payslip. Below, we explore some of the most important ones as per Indian payroll regulations.

TDS and Income Tax

The Tax Deducted at Source (TDS) is a key deduction that employers subtract at the time of disbursing salaries to employees. It is based on the employee’s income tax slab rate, which depends on their annual income. Opposite to TDS, income tax is an obligation that employees have to pay annually based on their income and the relevant tax rates.

Employees’ Provident Fund (EPF)

EPF, or simply, PF is one of the most known Payroll Deductions in India. It is a mandatory social security scheme that applies to organizations with 20 or more employees. In this tax, both the employer and employee contribute 12% of the employee’s basic salary and dearness allowance towards the PF account. This deduction helps employees build an essential principle for retirement and provides financial security.

Professional Tax (PT)

Please note that it is a state-specific tax, obligatory by the respective state governments. Therefore, this is one of the Payroll Deductions that is different in Delhi than in Maharashtra. Organizations deduct it from employees’ salaries, and the purpose of PT is to provide revenue for the state government and fund welfare initiatives. It is important to mention that the amount of PT is usually based on the employee’s salary and is deducted on a monthly or quarterly basis.

Employee State Insurance (ESI)

ESI is a social insurance system that provides medical and cash benefits for workers. Not only employees but also their blood relatives, can benefit from this scheme. It applies to organizations with 10 or more employees and employees earning a salary of up to INR 21,000 per month. Companies contribute 4.75% of the employee’s salary, while the employee contributes 1.75% towards it. The deduction ensures that employees have access to quality medical facilities in case of illness, injury, or any other health emergencies.

Labour Welfare Fund (LWF)

The LWF are statutory Payroll Deductions aimed at promoting the welfare of workers. The contribution to this fund varies from state to state and is deducted from the employees’ salaries. States deduct this fund, which is mainly used for the betterment of that area in the fields of education, healthcare, skill development, and so on for workers.

National Pension Scheme (NPS)

The NPS is a by-choice retirement savings scheme by the Government of India. It allows individuals to build a retirement principal sum through systematic contributions during their working lives. Both employers and employees can contribute to the NPS, and the contributions are deductible from taxable income under certain conditions. In short, the NPS offers employees a pension system that ensures financial stability during their post-retirement years.

Medical or Health Insurance

In the unavailability of ESI, many companies provide private medical or health insurance coverage to their employees. Organizations deduct the premium for the insurance from the employee’s salary. Needless to say, this allowance guarantees that employees have access to comprehensive healthcare services without paying out-of-pocket expenses.

Other deductions

In addition to those already mentioned, there may be other deductions, such as payments in kind, salary advances, or loans from the employer.

In short, understanding the main Payroll Deductions in India is crucial for both employers and employees. From TDS to various social security schemes such as PF, PT, ESI, and NPS, these deductions contribute to overall financial management and employee welfare.


In conclusion, Payroll Deductions are an essential component of the country’s financial and labour systems. Both companies and employees must understand how these deductions work to ensure an accurate calculation of wages and compliance with tax and legal obligations.

Sometimes a lot of regulatory compliances make calculating payroll deductions a highly complex process. For this reason, Payroll Software such as the one offered by NYGGS Automation Suite can be of great help to correctly apply deductions and manage payrolls in an agile and effective way. NYGGS, as an expert in HR technology with a 360ยบ approach, offers you a unique proposal in the market. Would you like to have the support of an expert team and the potential of robust payroll management technology? Contact our expert staff today!


Q1. What are the 4 most common Payroll Deductions?

Ans. The 4 most common deductions in payroll may include TDS, ESI, NPS, and LWF.

Q2. What are the Deductions for Employee Payroll?

Ans. Deductions for employee payroll are amounts that are taken out of an employee’s paycheck before they receive it. They can be either mandatory or voluntary, depending on the type of deduction.

Q3. How to Calculate Payroll Deductions?

Ans. The deductions in payroll can be calculated by subtracting taxable earnings from the total earnings of salaried employees.